Both shows were developed in long-term workshops to allow for maximum cross-cultural rubbing, and both proved remarkably prescient in their common theme: the ever-mounting threat that cataclysmic violence will engulf society if the longstanding economic and legal oppression of blacks is not halted. For audiences visiting either play after the fiery, bloody riots swept Los Angeles, the parallels were inescapable and instructive. Jacob Zulu tells the story of a black teenager accused of planting a bomb in a shopping mall, and its images of the protagonist being beaten and kicked by ruthless cops seemed almost nauseatingly familiar in the wake of the Rodney King trial whose verdict spawned the L.
The playwright, a white man whose family emigrated from Johannesburg to the U. The nine male vocalists functioned like a Greek chorus, singing responses to the story and ritualistically reenacting the action Jacob described. Their pulsing, breathy singing style brought an element of unearthly beauty and transcendence to the production.
Todd Freeman, in a powerful portrayal of the disoriented, emotionally choked Jacob into a seamless ensemble. Despite its radically different subject matter, Comedians provided a similarly bracing view of black alienation and despair as prelude to nihilistic violence. But if I had to perish twice, I think I know enough of hate to say that for destruction, ice also great and would suffice. Almost as soon as he learnt to write, he handed his parents a note which read: "I wish to become a painter.
His career as a clerk was short. He also fell so ill that he was sent to the family's country house to convalesce. The influence of the landscape around Mont-Roig, in southern Catalonia, can be seen Having completed my identify and analysis I now need to start to design what the presentation will actually look like. I have decided to do three initial design ideas, all different from each other and then ask the English rep which one he prefers and if there are any other things he would like included.
Below are my three initial design ideas: Idea 1 Idea 2 Idea 3 After designing these three initila ideas I e-mialed them to the enhlish rep and asked for his feedback on the designs, and which one he would prefer me to develop. He said In this tutorial I will show you how to make a custom user bar. I will be making a Photshop CS user bar. I have been asked by a Turkish football company called Galatasaray to design and produce a logo for their website www.
Too often, justice is taken to mean improving and implementing laws. As a result, actions tend to focus on increasing the capacity of law institutions, such as the police and courts, to improve access to justice. But while the fairness of justice systems, formal or informal, should remain a common preoccupation, we also need to tackle the much larger question of how to build more just societies.
Justice is not something that is merely dispensed through courts and the police. Instead, it is experienced either positively or negatively through the quality of opportunities, relationships, transactions and behaviours right across society.
We know that poverty, insecurity and injustice are man-made consequences of unfair policies and practices. We know that states can fail because, among other things, their policies exclude people from decision-making and access to resources — and this often fuels insecurity and violence. We also know that poorly conceived economic investment can contribute to patterns of horizontal inequality , environmental degradation and bad governance — all of which make conflict more likely.
5 minute informative speech on a theme of peace or justice - Essay Example
So this reality needs to be changed. In some contexts, justice institutions actively uphold laws, power structures and norms that entrench inequality and threaten peace. We need to think of justice as the outcome of a contest over resources and power. These contests occur everywhere — within and beyond the justice sector — and their outcomes can be fair and conducive to peace, or they can just as easily be the opposite.
The Prosecutor made best efforts to reverse the decision of the Appeals Chamber, which eventually came true on 31 March Rwanda resumed its normal relationship with the ICTR. Metcalfe, a Barayagwiza later declined to attend the trial and other detainees in Arusha went on general strike to support him. They not only complained about the ICTR as "the victor's justice," but also protested against the political pressure from Kigali.
Metcalfe, b; ICTR, c. Another political controversy arose when a revelation was made by a Canadian paper The National Post in that a UN prosecution investigator once investigated the RPF incumbent government leaders' involvement in the attack upon the airplane that killed President Habyarimana in Because the clash triggered off the genocide and is generally understood as a plot of Interahamwe militias, the revelation caused a heavy impact upon the government of Rwanda.
The memorandum was put under seal ICTR, a and the Prosecutor decided not to investigate the incident, Panafrican News Agency, ; Kimani, a although the memorandum was later made available to some defense counsels. ICTR, b; Kimani, b All these show how difficult and political it is to issue indictments or even start investigations.
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The "conditional" approach toward peace and justice would evaluate positive and negative factors of the process of issuing indictments. It demands discretion to say go and stop. The ad hoc tribunals were granted judicial independence despite the fact that they were directly created by the Security Council under Chapter VII.
The channels for such discretion are thus institutionally limited due to the tribunals' independence, but the Security Council can anytime decide to terminate the operation of the tribunals. The Council's power to suspend investigations and prosecutions under the Statute of Rome will be resorted to as a channel of discretion to put political restraints on the actions of judicial intervention. In this section, I shall consider the way international criminal tribunals facilitate the "culture" of the rule of law in the long term.
The characteristic effect of judicial intervention is increased focus upon individual responsibility; criminal justice dissolves collective guilt into individual crimes. The concept of punishing war crimes relies on the degree of individualization of international legal structures. It used to be understood that international law did not know individuals, but only states. However, it is nowadays widely recognized that recent changes in legal and normative structures of international society do not allow for such a simplistic state-centric view.
By individualizing war crimes, we are on the way to a culture of the rule of law, which also illustrates positive and negative aspects of judicial intervention. Judicial intervention makes a clear contrast with traditional approaches of military and political interventions.
Military interventions for humanitarian purposes aim at collective criminal acts. This does not mean that the intervening forces are not concerned with individual leaders. However, the principal and foremost function of military intervention is to stop violence, whether perpetrators on the ground are legally responsible or not.
Political efforts toward conflict resolution normally do not concern individual responsibility, while respecting the control of political organs by individual leaders.
Two Sides of the Same Coin: Justice and Peace - Waylandschoolcommittee
Whether certain leaders are criminal or not, peace negotiators deal with them as a means to resolve conflicts. The major political concern in complex emergencies is to terminate massive violence conducted by and imposed upon a large number of people. Judicial intervention could point to a different direction. Judicial intervention accuses multiple individuals ranging from the highest authority to inferior soldiers of single criminal acts.
However, this is not to make one person take collective responsibility for somebody else's sake, it is because criminal responsibility arises at each level in a different manner. Namely, judicial intervention contributes to peace by breaking down conflicts into individual crimes. It aims for peace not through group-oriented-approaches like negotiating peace accords and attacking brutal military forces, but through individualistic approaches like arrests, detentions and punishments.
It pursues peace not by focusing on conflicts between groups, but criminal acts committed by individuals. The positive aspects of the ad hoc tribunal approach includes clarification of the location and the degree of responsibility.
It distinguishes between political needs among conflicting groups and political responsibility of individuals. Not all Serbs have to take responsibility for the criminal acts in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Kosovo, while non-Serb criminals must be equally prosecuted and punished as individuals. Those who committed criminal acts are punishable regardless of political ranks, although the quality and degree of their crimes differ. The eradication of evil elements in a group by arresting criminal individuals would contribute to future peace by assisting the entire population to realize what constitutes evil in their political community.
It is imperative in the Former Yugoslavia and Rwanda to alleviate the tensions between ethnic groups by indicating that the incessant ethnic conflicts were not inevitable, but politically contrived by certain criminal individuals.
Are Freedom, Peace and Justice incompatible agendas?
Accusation of individual guilt works to make atrocities look less ethnic and fatalistic. The ad hoc tribunals are expected to show the will of the international community to assert that conflict was not the inevitable outcome of relations between incompatible ethnic groups, but the evil intention of certain individuals that caused the otherwise avoidable tragic incidents.
Negative aspects also derive from the individualist focus of the ad hoc tribunals. To punish individual criminals is based on the presupposition that individual efforts will achieve peace, although there are serious doubts about it. The Erdemovic judgement in November by the Trial Chamber of the ICTY was criticized because of flaws in legal procedures, but more fundamentally, because of the difficulty in punishing inferiors who had no freedom to resist orders from superiors. Yee, Judicial intervention has to draw a clear boundary between criminals and innocent parties. However, ethnic conflicts in the Former Yugoslavia and Rwanda are not so simple as to be able to prosecute a handful of criminals and prove the innocence of others without political and practical considerations.
The boundary might be highly arbitrary or ambiguous. In the case of the ICTY, the inability to arrest more senior officials would create a risk that the tribunal will punish only a tiny number of minor figures who happened to be detained by authorities despite many other potential criminals who are not arrested or even indicted.
The ICTR has been more successful in bringing higher officials into court, but it cannot deal with more than , detainees in Rwandan prisons who might suffer more severe sentences, including the death penalty. In fact, the international community could not stop prosecutions in in a soccer stadium in Kigali where 10, people gathered. Magnarella, , pp. In essence, the conception of peace underlying in the ad hoc tribunals is different from that in traditional forms of peace operations. Judicial intervention aims at peace, presupposing that it is achievable by addressing individual acts, while political intervention pursues peace between certain groups.
It is invalid in the twenty-first century to presuppose that states monopolize political or military power in armed conflicts. Many other groups and individuals may be politically responsible for conflicts, while there are passive state officials who might have been enforced to participate in atrocities. It is subtle and difficult to determine the appropriateness of accusing individuals who are faceless in conflicts, while assuming innocence of those involved in conflicts indirectly.
Of course, what is desirable is to reconcile the judicial and political perceptions of peace and achieve a more peaceful state in post-conflict regions. Nevertheless, the tension between the two appears incessantly in diverse situations.